Pneumo-frame construction description
Pneumo-frame construction description
Pneumatic frame construction refers to pre-fabricated structures made of PVC coated fabrics and using excess pressure to ensure the stability of the structure and resist external loads (snow, wind, etc.). They can be used in all climatic conditions from -30 ° С to + 50 ° С and are installed on all types of soil. They have high performance indicators (light weight, ease of installation and operation, good thermal insulation, autonomy, price, etc.).
Pneumatic frame construction is a set of arched cylinders - a frame, filled with air and connected to each other by means of attachment points and screw carabiners 8 mm. The ends of the structure can consist of arched-type cylinders or mattress-type cylinders with point spars. The approximate number of side members is 4 pcs / sq. The spar consists of two half spars. From above, the frame is covered with an awning to ensure tightness and additional thermal insulation. Also, the awning protects the frame from exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
The cavities of all cylinders are connected to the discharge line through check valves, and the line itself is connected through a check valve to the blower. A check valve (pipe ∅200 mm with a membrane) is required to prevent air leakage from the cylinders when the blower is not working or the line is damaged. The valve can be equipped with a self-closing and locking mechanism. The self-closing mechanism prevents air leaks in the event of significant damage to the cylinder. Blocked when the pneumatic frame construction is inflated.
The main geometric parameters of the pneumatic frame construction are the width of the structure and the diameter of the arch balloon, which depends on the width of the PKS and the external load. Together with the overpressure in the cylinder, they determine the bearing capacity of the structure. It is approximately possible to take the diameter of the balloon equal to 1/10 of the width of the pneumatic frame construction. The diameter of the cylinder largely depends on external loads: snow and wind and must be specified by the calculation method.
PVC coated fabric is used for the manufacture of cylinders and awning. The awning fabric has an extra layer of PVDF or acryl to protect the fabric from UV radiation and premature deterioration. A characteristic parameter of PVC fabric is its density (g / m2) and physical parameters of strength along the warp and weft (along and across the roll). For structures up to 30 m wide, fabric with a density of 650 ... 680 g / m2 is used, over 30 m - 900 g / m2 and more. The type of fabric used also depends on the operating conditions and must be chosen by the designer. Fabric parts are connected to each other by welding or glue. Welding is carried out with a wedge / air or HFC (high frequency currents). The main type of seam НХ40 is 40 mm wide.
The pneumatic frame construction is installed on any flat area, free of sharp objects. Anchoring to the base can be done with screw piles, ballast bags or foundations. The foundation can be formed using reinforced concrete slabs with a thickness of at least 150 mm, or it can be cast in a solid ring with reinforcement. Approximately, the width of the foundation is 400 ... 500 mm larger than the diameter of the arch balloon, and the thickness is 200 mm (specified by the calculation method).
Fastening of pneumatic frame construction cylinders to the foundation / ballast / piles is carried out by means of attachment points located at the base of the cylinder and 10 mm screw carabiners. In the case of a concrete base, anchors with a welded loop and an M12 thread are used.
To fasten the awning, a tensioning system is used, which is a set of pipes docked with each other (the tip of one pipe enters the cavity of the next) and located in a special pocket of the awning around the perimeter of the structure. Opposite the attachment points (anchors or screw piles), cutouts are made in the pockets to accommodate a steel ring to which a carabiner is attached connecting the tensioning system to the anchor / pile / ballast. A gap is made in the tensioning system at the locations of the entrance groups or technological openings. Also, the awning in the corners and with a step of 10 ... 20 m along the structure is attached to the frame using attachment points with straps and screw carabiners.
Pneumatic frame construction can be equipped with different types of entrance groups: PVC doors on a metal frame, swing gates with or without a wicket, overhead sectional doors, roller shutters, pneumatic gates with manual / electric / combined lifting. The metal frame of the opening is installed on the site independently and has an individual fastening. The metal frame is connected to the PKS frame by means of sealing aprons. The PKS awning is attached to the metal frame with 4x25 mm pressure plates. The awning at the location of the entrance groups is equipped with cable reinforcement around the opening, and the ends of the cables are attached to the base through lanyards.
The device and features of pneumatic gates. Pneumatic gates are one or more (usually two) closed cylinders located concentrically to each other and closed with plugs on both sides. In the case of one cylinder for opening the gate, air is released from it and the deflated gate leaf rises. If there are several cylinders, then only the outer one is lowered, and the inner one is lifted. To release air on the cylinder, a fitting with a screw cap and a ball valve are installed to disconnect the cylinder cavity from the discharge line while the cylinder is deflated. To open the gate, it is necessary to turn off the tap, open the cover, disconnect the side fasteners (if any, the foundation ones), lift the gate. Closing - in reverse order.
The structure can partially or completely rely on other buildings, stand on containers or a glazed metal frame, lean on a wall or adjoin it.
Pneumatic frame construction can be equipped with additional equipment: for lighting, heating, air conditioning, autonomous power supply, etc.
The lighting equipment includes fixing points for fixtures (metal frame with a fixing plate) and, by agreement, fixtures with 400 W metal halide lamps and a luminous flux of 35,000 lumens. With an illumination of 300..350 lux at 50 ... 60 sq. M, one lamp is needed. LED lamp is 2 ... 4 times more expensive.
Heating / ventilation / cooling equipment can be located outside or inside the PKS. Heating equipment can be of any type. For the placement of air ducts / chimneys of these systems in the structure, frames of technical openings and tubes for their connection are provided. For the outlet of the chimneys, a sandwich pipe (insulated chimney) is used.
To determine the approximate power of the equipment, you can apply the formula: Q = ΔtS (W); where Δt, (° С) is the temperature difference between the street and the room, S, (m2) is the surface area of the structure (awning).
When equipped with a mobile generator set, the structure can be operated autonomously without being connected to the mains.
An image can be applied to the surface of the awning using full-color printing or removable banners can be attached.